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Module 5: The Role and Importance of Assessment and Feedback

Introduction to Module 5:

This module consists of 6 weeks of learning:

Week 1: The Role of Assessment in Teaching and Learning

Week 2: Formative versus Summative Assessment

Week 3: The Role of Homework 

Week 4: The Importance of Feedback

Week 5: Verbal and Written Feedback

Week 6: Effective Feedback for Autistic Learners

The Learn that... and Learn how to statements covered within this module are captured on the ECF Induction Programme mapping document. 

Week 1: The Role of Assessment in Teaching and Learning

This week will focus on revisiting the role and importance of assessment as part of the teaching and learning process.  We will explore the complexities of assessment and how assessment outcomes can be influenced and distorted as a result of the assessment we as teachers choose to utilise.  This week sets the tone for a critical exploration of the role of assessment within our classrooms. 

Teachers' Standards:

Screenshot 2023-09-30 at 13.17.52.png

Evidence and Research:

Why is Assessment Important?

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(Edutopia, 2008)

Assessment is a key part of the learning and teaching process and offers teachers an indicators as to whether the intended learning has taken place (Edutopia, 2008).

Assessment practice has a range of purposes and uses.  It can identify pupils' academic attainment, offer a picture of pupils' understanding, informs curriculum planning and content both in the short and long term and informs pedagogy.

In preparing for a lesson, teachers should use assessment from the previous lesson to inform the structure and content of the lesson.  During a lesson, teachers should use formative assessment to make judgements about how the lesson proceeds e.g. whether the lesson can move forward or if something needs revisiting. At the end, or after a lesson, the teacher uses assessment to judge whether learning intentions were met and by whom.  This then leads into informing planning for the next lesson.  The cycle continues.

We will look at the different forms of assessment, but a key message to take away is that assessment forms the basis of all planning and in the moment decision making that a teacher makes.  It is no use teaching a lesson and arriving at the end to find that the intended learning had not taken place, or over time realise this exact issue over a module or term of work.

Assessment must be seen as a dynamic process that not only provides information at key points in a pupils' learning but is a constantly evolving mechanism to inform all decisions a teacher makes around teaching and learning.  Assessment is not simply an alternative term for testing but is much more than this.  Testing is just one part of assessment (Wiggins, 2002)

Thinking About Assessment and Its Complexities

Assessment appears, on the surface to be fairly simple: we teach something and use a form of assessment to check whether the pupils have learnt it.  If they have; great move on.  

Assessment is however, far more complex than that.  As we 'peel back the layers' of assessment, we begin to consider how important assessment is within our practice and how it is vital to be mindful of the approaches to assessment we use and how this can influence outcomes offering a distorted and unreliable view of a pupils' knowledge, skills and understanding.

Watch this short video where Dylan Wiliam explores 'what every teacher needs to know about assessment':

Application and Exploration of Practice and Setting:

Using the cycle of how assessment informs teaching and learning, mentioned above and presented as a diagram below, carefully plan a lesson ensuring each element of the cycle is engaged with.

Essentially, explicitly think about and take time to action, even noting down in a plan the activities and/or questions you will explore at each element of the cycle.

You may want to allow some additional time to plan and review this particular lesson.

Be prepared to discuss this at your weekly mentor meeting.

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Reflection and Discussion

Reflect upon the Dylan Wiliam video.

What were they key messages you took from this?

Is there anything you learnt that was new to you?

Did anything challenge your thinking?

What learning will you take into your own practice and how?

Share your summary at your weekly mentor meeting, leading a discussion around the role and complexities of assessment.

References

Edutopia (2008) Why is Assessment Important? Available at: https://www.edutopia.org/assessment-guide-importance

Wiggins, G. (2002) Defining Assessment. In Edutopia 21 January 2002. Available at: https://www.edutopia.org/grant-wiggins-assessment#graph1 

Wiliam, D. (2021)  What every teacher needs to know about assessment. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=waRX-IOR5vE

Week 2: Formative versus Summative Assessment

This week will focus on  the roles of summative and formative assessment in a pupil's learning.  We will revisit the meaning of each and look at how these should effectively be applied in order to progress learning within the classroom.  We will also consider alternative approaches to summative assessment by exploring the approach taken in Finland.

Teachers' Standards:

Evidence and Research:

Summative and Formative Assessment: their role and purpose

You will have previously, as part of your ITT programme, explored both summative and formative assessment and will no doubt have a strong grasp of these. We will revise both forms of assessment and take a closer look at their respective roles.

Read through this online article from Yale (n.d) that explores summative and formative assessment.

Now read this article by David Didau (2011) that explores the potential case for summative assessment.

Screenshot 2024-02-23 at 13.08.48.png

The diagram below offers an overview summary of the key distinctions between summative and formative assessment.

Screenshot 2024-02-23 at 13.17.54.png

(Drew, 2023)

Let's take a look at another approach, using Finland as an example.  The Finnish approach to summative assessment, particularly examinations is captured in the excerpt below from Assesment and Qualifications Insight (2021) You can access the full report here.

Screenshot 2024-02-23 at 13.28.57.png

(Assessment and Qualifications Insight, 2021)

To further explore the Finnish system you may find this article an interesting read:

Screenshot 2024-02-23 at 13.33.38.png

Formative Assessment: 

Dylan Wiliam (n.d) describes Formative assessment as:

"To me ‘formative assessment’ describes all those processes by which teachers and learners use information about student achievement to make adjustments to the students learning that improve their achievement. It's about using information to adapt to your teaching and adapt the work of the students to put the learning back on track - if you like, to make sure that the learning is proceeding in the right direction and to support that learning."

(Wiliam, n.d)

Watch this short video of Dylan Wiliam (2021) exploring what formative assessment is and what it is not:

TeachThought provides a diagramatic overview of different styles of formatives assessment with examples for each.  If you want to explore these approaches in more depth you can find out more here.

Screenshot 2024-02-23 at 15.49.11.png

Application and Exploration of Practice and Setting:

Take your learning about formative assessment into practice. 

 

Focus on using formative assessment effectively within a chosen lesson. 

 

Perhaps use the above list of strategies to try something new or different.

Reflection and Discussion

Using a chosen reflective framework, critically reflect upon the lesson you have planned and taught,.

Focus your reflection specifically on the use and application of formative assessment.

References

Assessment and Qualifications Insight (2021) Finland: Educating the whole child. Available at: https://www.aqi.org.uk/briefings/international-approaches-to-assessment-and-education-development-finland/

Didau, D. (2011) Is there a case for summative assessment? Available at: https://learningspy.co.uk/assessment/is-there-a-case-for-summative-assessment/

Drew, C (2023) 21 Summative Assessment Examples. Available at: https://helpfulprofessor.com/summative-assessment-examples/#google_vignette

TeachThought (2021) 50 Everyday Formative Assessment Strategies. Available at: https://www.teachthought.com/pedagogy/formative-assessment-strategies/

Yale: Poorvu Centre for Teaching and Learning (no date) Formative and Summative Assessments. Available at: https://poorvucenter.yale.edu/Formative-Summative-Assessments

Wiliam, D. (no date) Formative Assessment  Speech at National Council for Curriculum and Assessment. 

Wiliam, D. (2021) What formative assessment is and isn't. Available at: https://www.aqi.org.uk/briefings/international-approaches-to-assessment-and-education-development-finland/

Week 3: The Role of Homework 

This week will focus on  the role and purpose of homework in the learning process.  We will explore what constitutes homework and what high-quality homework might look like.  We will consider the arguments for and against setting homework and how homework has the potential to reduce the attainment gap between disadvantaged and non-disadvantaged pupils as well as the potential barriers faced by more disadvantaged pupils.

Teachers' Standards:

Evidence and Research:

Homework has always been a key feature of 'schooling' with homework often being set as a standard part of the curriculum with expectations on teachers to set homework and of students to complete the homework, with sanctions often being in place for students who failed to do so.

The EEF (n.d) define homework as "tasks given to pupils by their teachers to be completed outside of usual lessons".  This definition also includes homework clubs, where pupils complete set work within the school setting at an after school or lunchtime club and also 'flipped learning' where pupils are asked to prepare something ahead of a lesson (EEF, 2021).

Such tasks are very variable and range from undertaking research, reading, completing worksheets, revision and much more.  Homework has traditionally been focused on extending and/or reinforcing learning from the lesson that has taken place. However, more recently the idea of flipped learning has meant that pupils homework may be to prepare for learning that is yet to come.

This article by AdvanceHE explores flipped learning in more detail.

But, what is the rationale for setting homework?  Is all homework beneficial? and who benefits from engaging with homework?

Read the article below by Katina Zammit (2021) that asks 'What's the Point of Homework?'

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Watch the video below that debates the setting of homework.

The key findings from the EEF (2021) research are highlighted below:

Screenshot 2024-03-20 at 10.22.33.png

(EEF, 2021)

In addition to these key findings, it is important to note that effective homework centres on the quality of the homework being set rather than the quantity (EEF, 2021).  This suggests that the notion of setting a prescribed amount of homework each week is not an effective nor appropriate approach.  A more impactful option would be to set clear and purposeful homework that links to in-school learning, is of high-quality and engaging and relevant to pupils.

Teachers should also be aware that whilst homework can support the learning of pupils from disadvantaged backgrounds, and in theory support the closing of the attainment gap, often there are barriers, such as a quiet space to undertake homework or the resources to complete some tasks, that actually could result inadvertently on widening the gap.  Offering homework clubs and providing resources can go someway to overcoming these barriers, but this is something that a teacher should be mindful of (EEF, 2021).

Application and Exploration of Practice and Setting:

Explore the policy regards to the setting of homework at Newingate School.

Are you adhering to this policy?

Have a conversation with a colleague/s about their thoughts on homework, its value and place within education and then specifically Newingate School.

Reflection and Discussion

Having engaged with the evidence and research around homework, the school policy and thoughts of colleagues, reflect upon your position.

What are your thoughts about the place of homework within the education 'diet'.  Does homework have a place?

What are your thoughts about setting high-quality homework linked to learning for your own pupils at Newingate School?  Would this support learning or not add value?  Why?

How might you adapt your practice as a result of your learning from this week?

References

AdvanceHE (no date) Flipped Learning. Available at: https://www.advance-he.ac.uk/knowledge-hub/flipped-learning-0#:~:text=Flipped%20learning%20is%20a%20pedagogical,and%20problem%2Dsolving%20activities%20facilitated

EEF (2021) Homework. Available at: https://educationendowmentfoundation.org.uk/education-evidence/teaching-learning-toolkit/homework

My Progression (2023) Should we ban homework? Homework Debate for Teachers. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_MZrjIcepd0

Zammit, K. (2021) What's the Point of Homework? In The Conversation 1 September 2021. Available at: https://theconversation.com/whats-the-point-of-homework-154056

Week 4: The Importance of Feedback

This week will focus on  the different forms of feedback we can give pupils and how each differs in terms of effectiveness.  We will consider the importance of feedback being related to the task rather than the person and explore what constitutes effective feedback.  You will trial a chosen feedback strategy or approach and reflect upon how this moves pupil learning forward.

Teachers' Standards:

Evidence and Research:

The EEF (2021) defines feedback as "information given to the learner about the learner’s performance relative to learning goals or outcomes. It should aim to (and be capable of producing) improvement in students’ learning". 

They go on to highlight how "feedback redirects or refocuses the learner’s actions to achieve a goal, by aligning effort and activity with an outcome. It can be about the output or outcome of the task the process of the task the student’s management of their learning or self-regulation, or about them as individuals (which tends to be the least effective)" (EEF, 2021).

Feedback has a positive impact and immediate impact on the learner's progress (Victoria State Government, 2022) and learning outcomes for pupils and should take place as an integral part of the teaching and learning process and can be used both during and after learning (although in time feedback has the most impact).  

Feedback can come from various 'sources' such as teachers, TAs and peers and can be written or verbal.  It should be noted that according to the EEF (2021) report, that verbal feedback has more impact on learning outcomes than written feedback and is an integral part of formative assessment.

Before we move on, let's take a look at different forms of feedback:

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How you approach feedback in terms of when and how you feedback to pupils should align with your school's assessment and feedback policy.

If you have not done so already, take time to read through your school's Assessment Policy.  This can be accessed by clicking on the image below:

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Having explored what feedback is, let's focus on what makes effective feedback.

Watch this short video clip of Dylan Wiliam (2019) discussing feedback that moves learning forward, highlighting the importance of using comments rather than grades but also how feeding forward has a greater impact on learning that feedback.

Feedback can be 'ego involving' or 'task involving'.  Such terminology refers to the focus on the feedback that is given to pupils.  Ego-involving focuses on the person and 'task-involving' focuses on the work produced, or the task.

Here Dylan Wiliam (2017) explains how feedback is most effective when it is 'task involving'.  

Watch the short video below, and as you do consider how much of your feedback is 'ego-involving' and how much is 'task-involving'.

Often, as teachers we feel we have 'done our job' when we have offered feedback to our pupils and consider that 'ticked off the list'.  However, feedback in itself is of little use unless it has a direct impact on pupil e.g. unless pupils act on the feedback.

He also explores how to effectively write comments and feedback to pupils allowing them time to respond.

Take a moment to watch this third short video with Dylan Wiliam (2022) that offers a range of key ideas and practical approaches to effective written feedback.

The EEF (2021) have put together a summary of recommendations from their research around feedback (below) This summary pulls together key research and evidence that provides a scaffold for effective feedback practice.

Take time to read through this summary (you can access a full page version by clicking on the summary image below):

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You can access the full EEF (2021) report below:

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Application and Exploration of Practice and Setting:

Having explored the meaning of, types of and importance effective feedback it is time to apply this to your own practice.

Choose a key element of learning from this week to trial, develop or enhance within your own practice.  This might be a specific types of feedback, 'task-involving feedback, feedforward or an approach picked up within one of the videos.

Carefully plan your chosen feedback approach within a variety of lessons across the week.

If you have time, you may want to observe a colleague's lesson, focusing on the types of feedback they use.

Reflection and Discussion

Having embedded a chosen feedback strategy or approach into your practice, reflect upon the impact of this.

You might find the following useful to consider as part of your reflection:

  • How did you find planning the feedback strategy/approach you chose to trial?

  • How did this strategy work in practice?

  • How did the pupils respond?

  • How did this strategy/approach to feedback move student learning forward?

  • What evidence do you have of this?

  • What would you do to develop this approach/strategy further?

 

Be prepared to discuss this reflection with your mentor at your weekly meeting.

References

EEF (2021) Teacher Feedback to Improve Pupil Learning: Summary of Recommendations. Available at: https://d2tic4wvo1iusb.cloudfront.net/production/eef-guidance-reports/feedback/EEF_Feedback_Recommendations_Poster.pdf?v=1712837193

EEF (2021) Teacher Feedback to Improve Pupil Learning: Guidance Report. Available at: https://d2tic4wvo1iusb.cloudfront.net/production/eef-guidance-reports/feedback/Teacher_Feedback_to_Improve_Pupil_Learning.pdf?v=1712837193 

EEF (2021) Feedback. Available at: https://educationendowmentfoundation.org.uk/education-evidence/teaching-learning-toolkit/feedback

Federation University (no date) Types of Feedback. Available at: https://federation.edu.au/staff/learning-and-teaching/teaching-practice/feedback/types-of-feedback

Victoria State Government (2022) Feedback and Reporting. Available at: https://www.education.vic.gov.au/school/teachers/teachingresources/practice/Pages/insight-feedback.aspx 

Wiliam, D. (2022) Make Feedback into Detective Work. Tips for Teachers. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qmsVYX20qRA

Wiliam, D. (2019) Strategy 3: Providing Feedback that Moves Learning Forward. Learning Sciences International. Available at:https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vdIk9ysWJXQ 

Wiliam, D. (2017) Feedback on Learning. Education Scotland. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n7Ox5aoZ4ww

Week 5: Verbal and Written Feedback

This week will focus on  the benefits and impact of both verbal and written feedback and consider how to effectively utilise each strategy to move pupil learning forwards.

Teachers' Standards:

Evidence and Research:

The Importance of Verbal Feedback

Often feedback is linked to written feedback or 'marking', however, verbal feedback is an essential element of effective classroom pedagogy and can have a significant impact in terms of moving pupils' learning forwards (Goddard, 2023; The Chartered College of Teaching, n.d).

Verbal feedback allows a teacher to intervene immediately which prevents misconceptions from becoming embedded (The Chartered College of Teaching, n.d) and allows pupils to make immediate progress.

When effective verbal feedback should highlight what the pupil has achieved, what they need to improve and offer support and scaffolding in order to support them to make the required changes (Goddard, 2023).

Offering a generic 'good' or 'well done' is not helpful.  When giving verbal feedback, as with written feedback, it is important to be specific e.g. 'well done for including accurate punctuation throughout the letter' or 'you have used tone very effectively in whilst shading the sky within your picture'.

Not only is verbal feedback useful to gain a more immediate response, it also allows for dialogue to take place between the teacher and learner (Goddard, 2023) which ensures that the pupil has understand and engaged with the feedback in order to use it effectively in order to move their learning forwards. 

Engaging in dialogue with pupils through verbal feedback will also allow a teacher to adapt their teaching in response to individuals or groups of pupils.  It also allows pupils to discuss their learning, knowledge, understanding and experiences with the teacher and as a result can lead to improved teacher-pupil relationships whereby the pupil feels heard and valued (Finnegan, 2023).

Opportunities to use verbal feedback within a lesson:

There are many opportunities to use verbal feedback within the classroom.. These can include:

  • "A quick prompt during independent work

  • A guided writing session with the whole class to demonstrate expectations

  • A mini plenary to address misconceptions

  • Clarification of task expectations

  • Longer dialogue with a pupil about a piece of work" (Goddard, 2023)

The Benefit of Using Verbal Feedback on both Teachers and Pupils

Take a moment to read the blog below that summarises research undertaken by UCL and Teacher Toolkit.  The blog highlights how effective use of verbal feedback can save teacher's time whilst also boosting pupil engagement:

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As a result of this research, a Toolkit to support verbal feedback was developed.  This can be accessed below.  Take some time to read and engage with this toolkit to support the development of your verbal feedback strategies.

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The Importance and Role of Written Feedback

Despite verbal feedback being highlighted as an essential ingredient to ensuring pupils make progress with their learning, written feedback can also support the learning process. 

Written feedback is useful to create a record that pupils can refer back to.

However, such feedback should result in more work for the pupil than the teacher (Didau, n.d) yet all too often it is the teacher who undertakes the time consuming task of providing written feedback that goes unread and not addressed or engaged with. 

What should written feedback include?

Written feedback should be precise, clear and useful.  

As with verbal feedback adding a tick or noting 'good' on a pupil's work will not result in improved learning and will have no impact. 

 

Be specific e.g. 'I like how you used an adverb here. It adds a more detailed description for the reader'.

Ask questions where you want to encourage deeper thinking e.g. 'How might the workers have felt arriving at the factory each day?'

Model for the pupils.  Often advice is offered but the pupil is unaware of how to achieve what is being highlighted as an area for development.  E.g. You could add greater description about the dog here for example, the grey, wiry-haired dog limped into the house...'

Read this blog by David Didau, who explores what written feedback should look like:

Screenshot 2024-04-12 at 16.28.48.png

Application and Exploration of Practice and Setting:

Focus on  your verbal and written feedback this week.  Carefully plan opportunities to offer verbal feedback within your lessons ensuring you follow the key aspects of effective feedback that you have explored in your learning this week.

Where you are providing written feedback focus on ensuring that this is purposeful, specific, asks questions to extend thinking and that you model where appropriate within the feedback.  Ensure you support your pupils to engage with any written feedback.

You may wish to invite your mentor to observe one of these lessons and offer specific feedback around your verbal and written feedback, as this will be the time for your termly observation.

Observe 15 minutes or so of a colleagues lesson and focus on the verbal feedback they offer.  What strategies did they use? How did the pupils respond?  Was there evidence of this feedback moving learning forwards?

Reflection and Discussion

Use your post-lesson professional learning conversation within your mentor meeting to reflect upon how you utilise verbal feedback within your own teaching.

Identify areas for development as well as areas of strength.

You may find using one of the reflective frameworks helpful.

References

Didau, D. (no date) What should written feedback look like? Available at: https://learningspy.co.uk/featured/what-does-feedback-look-like/

Finnegan, E. (2023) The Power of Verbal Feedback.  Available at: https://isp.edu.my/the-power-of-verbal-feedback/

Goddard, R. (2023) Making Feedback More Effective for your Students. Iris Connect 26 May 2023. Available at: https://blog.irisconnect.com/uk/community/blog/making-feedback-more-effective-for-your-students/

Quinn, M. (2019) When Teachers Use Good Verbal Feedback Strategies, It Saves Them Time and Boosts Pupils' Engagement. IoE Blog 17 October 2019. Available at: https://blogs.ucl.ac.uk/ioe/2019/10/17/when-teachers-use-good-verbal-feedback-strategies-it-saves-them-time-and-boosts-pupils-engagement/

The Chartered College of Teaching (no date) Verbal Feedback in a Primary Classroom. Available at: https://my.chartered.college/early-career-hub/verbal-feedback-in-a-primary-classroom/

UCL (2019) Verbal Feedback Toolkit. Available at:https://www.ucl.ac.uk/widening-participation/sites/widening_participation/files/2019_verbal_feedback_toolkit_final_print.pdf 

Week 6: Effective Feedback for Autistic Learners

This week will focus specifically on how to effectively question and offer feedback to learners with autism.  We will look at a journal article on this subject and focus on the key themes within this article and how these can be applied to practice within the classroom.

Teachers' Standards:

Evidence and Research:

Read the article by Tay and Kee (2019) that explores effective questioning and feedback for learners with autism in an inclusive classroom:

Screenshot 2024-04-16 at 08.43.12.png

"Learners with ASD have difficulties in engaging in questioning and feedback dialogue" (Tay and Kee, 2019)

As we know, there is a lot of evidence that supports using effective questioning and feedback in order to move pupils' learning on.  We have explored such across the differing modules of your induction programme.  However, research does not address how effective such strategies are to support the learning of pupils with special educational needs (Tay and Kee, 2019).

The difficulties faced by pupils with ASD with regards to engaging with questioning and feedback.

 

Pupils with autism have:

  •  significant differences in sensory processing (Lane, Young, Balart and Angeley, 2010 and Tomcheck and Dunn, 2017 cited in Tay and Kee, 2019) compared to other learners and as a result experience challenges with regards to auditory filtering.

  • difficulty sustaining attention on the teacher during questioning and feedback dialogue.

  • difficulty in seeing the 'bigger picture' and tend to focus on detail.

  • difficulty in observing non-verbal communication cues and often do not observe people during conversations.

  • weak central coherence which results in an inability to adjust their communication to the setting and can manifest in impoliteness, asking of embarrassing questions and pedantic speech.

  • difficulty in understanding non-literal speech and language for example the use of irony, metaphors, humour or applying language in different contexts

 

How to support questioning and feedback for learners with autism.

There are a variety of approaches and considerations when using questions and feedback with learners with autism that will support learner engagement and the impact that the strategies have upon learning.  These include:

Questioning:

  • Offer a longer 'wait time' after asking a verbal question

  • Use a quiet and non-threatening tone of voice

  • Support questioning with additional stimuli such as visuals

  • Ask questions that only require short, two or three word answers.

  • Ensure the questions you ask are clear and brief.

  • Use steps to scaffold asking more complex questions, breaking the questions down into parts.

  • Avoid idioms (e.g. over the moon) and metaphorical questions (e.g. is the glass half empty or is the glass half full?)

Feedback:

  • Ensure feedback is short and unambiguous

  • Make the next steps for learning explicit E.g. next time you write a letter you need to include a date at the top on the right hand side of the page.

  • Consider using visual representation to communicate your feedback e.g. a mindmap.

  • Offer affirmative praise.

As with all students, autistic learners respond more positively to their learning when they are interested in the subject matter.  It is useful to hone in on the pupils' interests and adapt the learning to offer the opportunity to utilise these whilst also adapting your approach and strategies to meet the pupils' individual needs.

(Adapted from Tay and Kee, 2019)

Application and Exploration of Practice and Setting:

Take the points above into your teaching.  This week in your practice, focus on how you can develop your approach to questioning and feedback to support your learners.

Reflection and Discussion

Reflect on both your questioning and feedback this week.

How did you adapt your approach to both questioning and feedback to support your learners?

How did the learners respond?

Which approaches did you find easiest to implement and embed?

Which approaches require more practice?

Be prepared to discuss how you are developing and adapting your use of questioning and feedback to better support your pupils.

References

Tay, H. and Kee, K. (2019) Effective questioning and feedback for learners with autism in an inclusive classroom. Cogent Education. doi: 10.1080/2331186X.2019.1634920.

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